Turku study on Male Reproductive Health


Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproduction

For publications related to the Turku Study on Male Reproductive Health, see here



Several cohorts of nineteen year old men from the Turku area have been invited to participate in the study and over 1200 men have been examined. Most of the examined cohorts have been invited for follow-up visits with 2-3 years interval. In addition, a group of 270 voluntary fertile men have been examined.

For details on the clinical examinations and sample collection, please see column on the left.


Inclusion criteria

Young men born in Finland (also mother born in Finland) and living in the Turku area were invited to participate in the study.


Ethical aspects

The studies have been approved by the ethics committee of the Hospital District of Southwest Finland and they have been conducted according to the Helsinki II declaration. All participants gave their informed consent to participate in the study.


Sponsors and collaborators

Turku University Hospital

Academy of Finland

Sigrid Jusélius Foundation

European Commission

University of Copenhagen


Principal investigator

Professor Jorma Toppari MD, PhD



Horte A MD

Perheentupa A MD, PhD

Rönkä R MD, PhD

Sadov S MD

Suominen J MD, PhD

Vierula M PhD

Virtanen HE MD, PhD



Järvi J special lab. technician




The study gathers the following information:


Physical examination



Degree of masculinization

External genitals

Testicular size

Testicular scan with ultrasound



Semen samples

Semen quality analysis


Blood samples

Reproductive hormone levels

DNA isolation (subcohort)


Urine sample

Chemical levels (subcohort)



Previous health and growth Socio-economic factors

Lifestyle factors