Turku mother/child cohort


Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproduction

More than 2000 pregnant women from the Turku area were included in this study in 1996-1999. Their sons born in 1997-1999 were examined at birth, at the age of 3 months and special cases and controls also at the age of 18 months. The study was continued as a case-control-study on cryptorchidism and hypospadias in 2000-2002. Currently one hundred boys are participating in a pubertal follow-up study.

For details on the clinical examinations and sample collection, please see column on the left.


Inclusion criteria

Cryptorchid cases and special controls were invited to participate in the pubertal follow-up study.


Ethical aspects

The study has been approved by the ethics committee of the Hospital District of Southwest Finland and it has been conducted according to the Helsinki II declaration. All families gave their informed consent to participate in the study.


Sponsors and collaborators

Turku University Hospital

Academy of Finland

Sigrid Jusélius Foundation

European Commission

Pediatric Research Foundation

University of Copenhagen

University of Cambridge


Principal investigator

Professor Jorma Toppari MD, PhD



Kaleva M MD, PhD

Perheentupa A MD, PhD

Rönkä R MD, PhD

Sadov S MD

Suomi A-M MD, PhD

Virtanen H E MD, PhD

Koskenniemi J J BMed



Järvi J special lab. technician

The study gathers the following information:


Physical examination

at pubertal follow-up


sitting height


waist and hip circumference

pubertal staging

pitch of voice

testicular size

testicular scan with ultrasound

pubertal signs


Physical examination in early infancy



testicular position

testicular scan with ultrasound

location of the urethral meatus


Blood samples

reproductive hormone levels

DNA isolation (subcohort)


Urine sample

chemical levels


Milk samples

Persistent chemicals (subcohort)



Persistent chemicals




Maternal and pubertal questionnaires on health,  life-style, and diet



For publications related to the Turku Mother-Child Cohort, see here